Normally it starts with the dreaded “AWD Malfunction” indicator on the Ford Kuga digital dash, or you find the 4wd system not working when it was really needed. Ford do not have any routine servicing for the Haldex AWD coupling system, calling them a “fitted for life” or “non serviceable item”. Typically the filters are clogged by 50k miles and cause the pumps to fail, but usage and age affect the approximate mileage guide. To prolong the life of the system it would be ideal to replace oil and filter ever 30k miles or 3 years, which ever comes first. There have been very low mileage examples (sub 20k mile vehicles) which have defective pumps, and there have been vehicles with over 100k miles where the pump has then failed. From our experiences, dealerships and garages commonly have little experience with the Kuga Haldex system, often supplying the incorrect oil for the Haldex system so make sure they know the difference between the differential and the Haldex AWD coupling fluids and fill points, there are diagrams below which may offer some support.
Generation 3 and 4 systems can be easily identified apart; the generation 3 system has the early black pump fitted in 2008, while the generation 4 system has a silver pump which has a nipple shape on the end which was fitted from 2009 onward. Also note the different locations of the cover plate for the filter – Gen 3 has the filter to the left, while Gen 4 has the filter at the top. Knowing which system you have is important to ensure the correct parts are ordered.
Scanning the AWD/DEM for fault codes is the first step to put the vehicle in the right direction for a cost effective repair. Not all aftermarket diagnostic systems communicate with the Haldex AWD DEM ECU on the Ford Kuga to read the fault codes, we know it can be done with the Autel Maxisys MS908 and other similar variations, some of the Snap-on systems also work, and obviously the Ford IDS diagnostic system works. If there is no communication with the Haldex AWD / DEM module even though the diagnostic system lists this module, then typically it will be the control module/unit at fault.
Codes for the Ford Differential Electronic Module / Haldex AWD On Demand Coupling
- P0562 – System voltage low (Usually historic due to a flat battery in the past)
- P0563 – System voltage high (Usually historic due to a faulty alternator in the past)
- P0602 – PCM programming error
- P0606 – ECU short or open circuit
- P0932 – Hydraulic pressure sensor circuit (Gen 3 Only)
- P0937 – Hydraulic oil temperature sensor circuit (Gen 3 Only)
- P0939 – Hydraulic oil temperature sensor circuit low (Gen 3 Only)
- P0940 – Hydraulic oil temperature sensor circuit high (Gen 3 Only)
- P0960 – PCS (Haldex control valve) A control circuit open (Usually ECU fault)
- P0961 – PCS (Haldex control valve) A control circuit range performance (Usually ECU fault)
- P0962 – PCS (Haldex control valve) A control circuit low (Usually ECU fault)
- P1889 – Oil pressure pump performance (Haldex Pump – most common fault)
- U0001 – High speed CAM communication fault
- U0121 – Lost communication with ABS module
- U2050 – No valid application for DEM
The most common typical issues with Ford Kuga AWD system
P1889 is the most common, caused by defective pump. Recommend replace pump, filter and oil.
P0960 and/or P0961 and/or P0962 Often caused by faulty corroded ECU.
P0606 also often caused by faulty corroded ECU.
Most vehicles show the AWD Malfunction on the dashboard, cars that do it intermittently typically have a faulty pump which is caused by blocked filter.
Some installation hints and tips (Torque values etc)
Changing the filter, pump and oil is quite straight forward. Follow the guide from the service manual below. Ensure you mark the prop shaft coupling with a mark to show the correct alignment when refitting. Not all Ford Kuga models require the prop shaft to be removed as it depends on which version is fitted to the car. Some have the larger one with the rubber harmonic damper fitter, some have the smaller one – it depends on gearbox and engine specification. A new locking nut is supplied as part of the Haldex pump kit and the torque values are shown in the diagram here. A locking tool shown in step 15 can be easily improvised with some flat steel or dexian etc, likewise the puller shown in step 16 is a typical common workshop tool and if not available can be improvised quite simply with some steel as not much force is required to remove the input coupling flange. (click on images for larger versions)
There are two oil chambers on the Ford Kuga, do not mix them up, Ford Dealerships have a habit of supplying incorrect fluids for the two systems, eg supplying diff oil when Haldex fluid is required. The Kuga is their only vehicle in the UK Ford product range with the Haldex system which they do not routinely service.
- The rear one is the final drive differential which contains hypoid gear oil SAE 80W-90F which is Ford part number 4U7J-M2C197-AA or 1349065 for 1 Litre.
- The front chamber is the Haldex coupling which contains Haldex AWD Transmission Oil which is Ford part number 8U7J-8708687-AA or 1524498 for 0.3 Litre/ 300ml tube which fits into a Silicon/Mastic gun.
We supply Volvo branded Haldex fluid for use with the Ford Kuga as it is less than a third of the price for the same fluid, just a different bottle, quantity and branding. Ford supply 300ml tubes of which 3 are required at around £25 per tube, while the Volvo branded oil comes in a 1 litre bottle at around £30.
Pump and Filter Fitting Instructions